Frederik Willem de Klerk served in South Africa’s parliament for 17 years until he became president in 1989. During his presidency, he repealed (reversed the laws) the apartheid (system of racial segregation) laws and released anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela from prison. Mandela was elected president in 1994 and De Klerk was deputy president until he resigned in 1997. For his part in ending apartheid, De Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize with Mandela in 1993.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela served on the National Executive Committee of the African National Congress starting in 1949. Mandela led many peaceful protests against apartheid by using strikes, boycotts, and civil disobedience, which landed him in jail on several occasions. After peaceful attempts did not bring a change, Mandela formed a guerilla army, which led to his final arrest where he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Kerk released Mandela and he was elected president during the free elections, where he served until he retired in 1999.
From 1948 – 1991, South Africa had a legal system called apartheid. This was a system of segregation and legal discrimination. Black people and mixed races were required to register with a Race Classification Board, which would assign race in case of dispute. They were not allowed to vote, their education was separate and vocational (job related), and mixed marriages were not allowed.
After Great Britain conquered and unified South Africa in the Anglo-Boer War, only whites were considered citizens. Legislation from 1910-1924 laid the foundation for apartheid. The National Party took power in South Africa in 1948 after running on a platform of separate development. The next 20 years developed those principles and they became law. Police forces crushed and violently dealt with anyone who disagreed.
What factors contributed to the end of apartheid? (image source)
The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912. It was a Black conscious movement that tried to restore pride to black South Africans. On June 6, 1978 police fired on schoolchildren who were protesting from the Soweto Township, which led to an international outraged and increased violent protests. After De Klerk became president in 1989, he opened talks between the white government and the ANC. Apartheid officially ended after Mandela was elected president in 1994. He was South Africa’s first black president.
Other Resources: World History Homework p. 54, 109; Story of the World Vol. 4 Ch. 42 pp.469-474, Mystery of History V.4 L. 81
Units used to measure electricity
Ohms – measure the resistance of electric current that loses its energy when passed through a conductor.
Volts – measures the difference in charge between two areas. If a conductor connects two objects, the electric current flows from the higher charge to the lower.
Amperes – unit of electrical current, equal to one coulomb per second. A coulomb measures the magnitude of the electric charge of a particle or an object.
Watts – units of power. Measure the rate at which electrical energy is converted into other forms of energy. (heat & light)
(Week 24 starts at 9 minutes and 10 second)
Other Resources: Everything You Need to Know About Science Homework p.121-124, Apologia Chemistry and Physics; Classical Science Elementary Physical Science Unit 12
(Week 24 starts at 4 minutes and 28 seconds)
Interjection – is a word or phrase used as a strong expression of feeling or emotion.
(Week 24 starts at 11 minutes and 51 seconds)
Latin (same as week 11, 12, 23, & 24)
1st Conjugation Endings (week 24 starts at 4 minute 05 seconds) Future Perfect Tense
Orchestra & Composers
When it comes to Fine Arts the best resource out there is Half a Hundred Acre Wood! She has an entire post dedicated to Orchestra and Composers for weeks 19-24 and with tons of great resources. These resources include free lap book pages, free printable, music, links for additional resources, and much, much more! Be sure to scroll down the page for the resource you want. Click here to be taken there! 🙂
Click here for a great correlating booklist created by halfahundredacrewood.com. The list is broken down for each CC subject.
Click here for another great reading list created by livingouthislove.com.