In the 18th Century, England began to replace human labor with machinery. England also began to transition from an agricultural and trade society to an industrial one. Many people lost their jobs, which led to protests and reorganization of labor.
James Watt lived from 1763 to 1819. He was a Scotsman who invented an improved version of the steam engine by adding a second cylinder to save energy by keeping the steam and cold water separate in the engine. He patented his engine in 1769 and partnered with Matthew Boulton to manufacture it. The new improved steam engine was used in mills and foundries all over Britain by 1781. Watt retired in 1800, but continued to invent until his death.
The steam engine that Watt invented was important because it powered industrial processes in textiles and grain mills, made agriculture more efficient and economical, and paved the way to power transportation such as the steam locomotives, steam boats, and automobiles.
Edmund Cartwright lived from 1743 to 1823. He was a clergyman who invented the power loom, which was inspired from a recent visit to a cotton-spinning loom. In 1793 he went bankrupt and moved to London in 1796. Cartwright was officially given recognition for his contributions in 1809 by the government.
The power loom allowed workers to produce more cloth with less effort. It drove up the demand for cotton, which led Europe to look for new suppliers in the southern United States.
Eli Whitney was born in Massachusetts and lived from 1765 to 1825. He invented a better cotton gin than what was available and patented it in 1794. His new gin used a wire screen to keep the seeds on one side and small spiked teeth to pull the fibers through to the other side. After a failed drawn out legal contests due to farmers making their own gin and monopolizing Whitney’s gin, Whitney retired to Connecticut where he worked on other inventions until his death.
The cotton gin was important because it allowed cotton growers to separate their cotton more quickly and efficiently.
Other Resources: World History Homework p.88-89, Story of the World Vol. 3 Ch. 27 & 31 pp.259-264 & 289-295, Mystery of History V.4 L.
States of matter
Solid– Has shape and volume. Ex: computer or glass.
Liquid – Has volume but no shape and can be made to fit into any container of any shape. Ex: water
Gas – Does not have volume or shape and can be made to compress into any shape and size. Ex: Oxygen
Plasma – Is made when a gas is heated at a very high temperature. It is found in the starts or in lightening.
(week 13 starts at 2 minutes and 47 seconds)
Other Resources: Everything You Need to Know About Science Homework p.94-96; Apologia Chemistry and Physics; Classical Science Elementary Physical Science Unit 1
Week 13 starts at 30 seconds
Indefinite Pronouns (week 13 starts at 3 minutes and 51 seconds)
1st Conjugation Endings Present Tense (same as week 1, 2, &13)
Northern European Countries
Timeline (week 13 starts at 5 minute and 46 seconds)
When it comes to Fine Arts the best resource out there is Half a Hundred Acre Wood! She has an entire post dedicated to the great artists for weeks 13-18 and with tons of great resources. Be sure to scroll down the page for the artist you want. Click here to be taken there! 🙂
Click here for a great correlating booklist created by halfahundredacrewood.com. The list is broken down for each CC subject.
Click here for another great reading list created by livingouthislove.com.