Who were the Songhai?
The Songhai lived south of the Sahara Desert along the banks of the Niger River. They were mostly hunters, farmers, and fishermen. In the 1300’s they lost their independence to the Mali, and in the 1400’s regained it. Timbuktu became a major cultural center for them. It was also where their thriving university was.
Why did the Songhai Empire fall?
The Songhai Empire was already weak by civil war when Morocco attacked them. Morocco brought horses, guns, and fought along side Portuguese soldiers. The new technologies and techniques ultimately contributed to their defeat.
Who were the Zanj? (image source)
The Zanj were naval people that lived on the coasts of what is now Ethiopia and Madagascar. They controlled much of the trade on the coasts and charged taxes for the passage of goods. Some of their trading partners were the Arabs, Persians, and Indians. The Zanj controlled ports that were used by the Zimbabweans.
Who were the Zimbabweans? (image source)
The Zimbabweans were expert stone craftsmen who are known for building their capital city completely out of stone. They grew wealthy by controlling trade over the high lands. They traded copper, ivory, and skins for glass, cloth, and porcelain. Their empire possibly declined, although we do not know for sure, due to draught, resource drain, and political problems.
Other Resources: Story of the World V. 2 Ch.29; Streams of Civilization V.1 pp.315-316; Everything You Need to Know About World History Homework pp.46-48
Kinds of Rock
Igneous – forms when liquid magma cools creating crystal structured rocks
Sedimentary – forms at the bottom of lakes and oceans by mixing sediment (dirt, dust, etc.) with minerals, which cements it together creating sedimentary rocks.
Metamorphic – Created deep within the earth by heat and pressure changing the structure of Igneous and Sedimentary rocks.
(I recommend starting the video at 1 minute)
Other Resources: Everything You Need to Know About Science Homework pp. 49-51
Linear Equivalents (image source)
Helping Verb (week 14 starts at 20 seconds)
When it comes to Fine Arts the best resource out there is Half a Hundred Acre Wood! She has an entire post dedicated to the great artists for weeks 13-18 and with tons of great resources. Be sure to scroll down the page for the artist you want. Click here to be taken there! 🙂
Timeline (week 14 starts at 0 minute and 34 seconds)
Click here for a great correlating booklist created by halfahundredacrewood.com. The list is broken down for each CC subject.
Click here for another great reading list created by livingouthislove.com.