What happened in the Punic Wars?
In the third century B.C., the Punics were the leading naval power. Located in the Northern African city of Carthage, the Carthaginians were called Punics by the Romans because they were a Phoenician colony.
The First Punic War was from 264 – 241 B.C. For this war, Rome had developed their own rival naval fleet and successfully pushed back the Carthaginians from the island of Sicily.
The Second Punic war was from 218 – 201 B. C. During this war, the Carthaginians invaded Italy, under the leadership of Hannibal, and Rome suffered a humiliating defeat at Cannae in 216 B.C. However, under the Roman leadership of Scipio Africans, the Romans cut off Hannibal’s supply line which led to the defeat of the Carthaginians for good. This defeat made room for the Roman Republic to expand their empire.
What was the Pax Romana? (image source)
Beginning with Julius Cesar’s greed for more power, the Roman Republic was consumed by military and political leaders. The last major battle was between Roman leaders Antony and Octavian. In 31 B.C., Octavian defeated Antony in the Battle of Actium. This led to Octavian adopting the title “Augustus”, which means the exalted one, and began his quest to to restructure Rome as an empire.
The Pax Romana, Latin for Roman Peace, signifies the period of time when the Roman Empire expanded militarily and established peace within its domain, all which began Caesar Augustus’s reign. Other significant accomplishments include trade flourishing, architecture and art advancements, development of literature, and infrastructure improvements as Caesar established rule of law and implemented a system of taxation throughout the empire.
** Fulfilling the prophecy of Micah 5:2, according to Luke 2, The Pax Romana and Caesar’s system of taxation, by using a census, were the reasons that Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem at he time of Jesus’ birth.
How were the Western and Eastern empires divided?
Due to the vast size of the Roman Empire, it became unstable in the second century A.D., it was just too big to govern so tightly. This led to the break out of civil and external wars. In an attempt to keep control, in 286 A.D. Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into a western and eastern half, which means it now had two emperors.
Constantine was the next ruler of the Eastern Empire. He attempted to reunite the two halves and instituted Christianity as the official religion of the empire along with declaring Constantinople his capitol.
After Constantine’s death, the empire was divided once again, and the Eastern Empire eventually became the Byzantine Empire.
The Huns originated from Mongolia and were known as a nomadic people, or wandering people. They began their pillaging in the early fourth century B.C. Their first confrontation took place against the the Germanic Goth people, which drove the Germans west and into a dispute with Rome’s Western Empire. Monarch Attila of Hungary was the most famous of the leaders of the Huns. He strategically used mounted soldiers to attach the the outskirts of the Western Empire.
In 410 A.D., Rome was sacked, or plundered, by the German armies of Alaric. After being weakened by the attacks from the Huns, in 476 A.D., the Western Empire was finally destroyed by another German leader, Odoacer, who forced Emperor Romulus Augustus to abdicate or give up his throne. The remaining lands of the empire broke away to become independent lands which completed the fall of the Western Empire.
Other Resources: Story of the World V.1 Ch. 40 pp. 299-301; Everything You Need to know about World History pp. 18-21; World History Homework pp. 20-21; Kingfisher p. 34-35, p. 62-63, p. 64-67, p. 72-73, p. 82-83; Mystery of History L. 43, 67-68, 70, 91, 94-95, 96-97, 99, 100-101, 102-108
Major Groups of Invertebrates
Invertebrates – creatures that do not have a backbone or spinal column. There are 8 groups and their classification is dependent of the type of body structure that replaces the backbone.
Sponge – Is the simplest invertebrate, made only of 2 layers of cells. It can regenerate, or regrow cells that have been damaged, and live in water. Food and oxygen flow in and out of cells.
Stinging-celled animal (image source) -made of 2 layers of cells that form 2 kinds of tissues. It has one opening (mouth) and tentacles. Tentacles are rope-like parts that contain stinging cells. It can regenerate damaged body parts and lives in water.
Some Stinging celled animals include: jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral, and more
Flatworm – has organs for moving, digesting food, and releasing waste. It has only 1 opening and can regenerate damaged parts. Many are parasites and some are scavengers.
Parasites are organisms that feed on and cause harm to another organism call a host. A tapeworm is an example of a parasite.
Scavengers are animals that eat dead or rotting organisms. A planarian is an example of a scavenger.
Roundworms – have specialized tissue. It has 2 body openings connected by a long tube. Food goes in one opening and waste goes out the other. Many are parasites.
Mollusks – Mollusks are invertebrates that may produce a shell. They live on land or in water and are the second largest group of animals.
Types of Mollusks include clams, oysters, muscles, octopus (no shell), squid, and more
Segmented worms – have organs that make a circulatory system. Its body is divided into section or segments.
Some examples of segmented worms are night crawler, earthworm, and more.
Arthropod (image source) – is an animal with an outer skeleton, called an exoskeleton. it has jointed legs and a segmented body. It is the largest group of animals.
Some arthropods include insects (largest group of anthropoids), centipedes, millipedes, crustacean (crab, crayfish, shrimp, lobster), and arachnids (or spiders).
Sea stars – have skeleton of plates, some have spines for protection, and they have tube feet (feet with suction cups).
Some examples of sea stars are sea urchins, starfish, and more
Other Resources: Everything You Need to Know About Science pp. 7-9
Skip count the 9’s (starts at 52 seconds)
Skip count the 10’s (starts at 40 seconds)
Prepositions (week 5 prepositions start at 19 seconds)
2nd Declension starts at 38 seconds
Other resources for the Nile Delta: V. 1 Ch. 2 pp. 14-20; The Usborne Internet-Linked Encyclopedia of World History pp. 114-115
Perspective is a technique used that will show a three dimensional world on a two dimension paper. It looks realistic and accurate, and is as we see it in nature. It is an illusion of space and depth on a flat surface.
Click here to be taken to halfahundredacrewood.com for a great explanation of perspective art. Scroll down to week 5 on her page!
Timeline (week 5 starts at 1 minute and 43 seconds)
Click here for a great correlating booklist created by halfahundredacrewood.com. The list is broken down for each CC subject.
Click here for another great reading list created by livingouthislove.com.