Martin Luther was born in 1483 in Germany. He was an ordained monk and taught at the University of Wittenberg. Through studying, Luther believed that man could only be saved by faith, not through works.
The Catholic Church had full ownership of Christianity before the Reformation. The church leaders were taught how to read and copy scripture in Latin and Greek. The Catholic Church was lead by the Pope of Rome. They established forms of worship and were very influential in the political arena.
What was the Protestant Reformation?
Because of the amount of power the priests had, corruption became a problem and led to the Protestant Reformation. The power that the priests had included: they were the only educated individuals that were allowed to read and write, hear confession, assign punishment for sins, and to give exceptions from paying the consequence for sins. The Reformation argued that men should be able to read and interpret the bible on their own without a priest, stood against corruption in the church, and believed that salvation was God’s gift and you did not have to pay for it.
In order to raise funds to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, Pope Leo X allowed people to bring a donation with their confession as a means for forgiveness. Luther wrote 95 arguments (theses) against this practice.
The Pope was angered by Luther’s theses. In 1520, Pope Leo X gave Luther and ultimatum that he must disclaim his theses or be excommunicated. Luther chose not to disclaim his beliefs and burned publically the letter that Pope Leo X sent him along with other Catholic writings.
John Calvin studied law and lived and worked in Geneva, Switzerland. Influenced by Luther’s writings, Calvin began to write his own treaties on reformed Christian theology. He believed that the Bible was the final authority and that salvation could never be earned, it was given through grace from God.
Giants – Giants are large stars that are near the end of their life and cool. They are cool because they have used up most of their hydrogen fuel.
Dwarfs – Dwarfs are smaller than giant stars. They are also dimmer and hotter.
Variables – Variable star brightness changes due to the pulsing energy inside of it.
Novas – Nova stars brighten rapidly and then fade to normal. A supernova star is a giant start that has reached it peak and will either begin to shrink or explode.
Neutrons – Neutron stars are formed when a supernova explodes. They are small stars and are dense.
Possessive Adjetives (starts at 14 seconds)
1st Conjugation Endings Present Perfect Tense (starts at 1min 18sec)
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